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In trying to keep up with emissions and fuel efficiency laws, the fuel system used in modern cars has changed a lot over the years. The 1990 Subaru Justy was the last car sold in the United States to have a carburetor; the following model year, the Justy had fuel injection. But fuel injection has been around since the 1950s, and electronic fuel injection was used widely on European cars starting around 1980. Now, all cars sold in the United States have fuel injection systems.
In this article, we'll learn how the fuel gets into the cylinder of the engine, and what terms like "multi-port fuel injection" and "throttle body fuel injection" mean. We'll also find out how performance chips can give your engine more power. continue
Fuel Injector Reconditioning
Electronic fuel injectors can build up with wax, varnish, rust and organic matter. This has a major effect on an engine's performance and fuel economy. Automobiles with Electronic Fuel Injection will not run at their maximum efficiency if injectors are clogged and dirty.
At Fuel Injection Specialties, or factory trained technicians can provide you with total ultrasonic cleaning and reconditioning service for fuel injectors for a fraction of the price of new injectors, we clean, test and recondition your old injectors to like-new condition.
Electronic Fuel Injectors that are serviced regularly will perform like new. Benefits such as easier starting smooth running, better performance, increased gas mileage, and lower emissions are the end results.
Research shows that fuel injectors are unlikely to need replacement during the lifetime of the vehicle when properly maintained by an Electronic Fuel Injection (Electronic Fuel Injection System Service Program. Fuel Injection Systems
Let Fuel Injection Specialties and our trained staff provide this service for you and your customer. Continue
Fuel injection is a means of metering fuel into an internal combustion engine. In modern automotive applications, fuel metering is one of several functions performed by an "engine management system".
For gasoline engines, carburetors were the predominant method to meter fuel before the widespread use of electronic fuel injection (Electronic Fuel Injection System. However, a wide variety of injection systems have existed since the earliest usage of the internal combustion engine.
Differences between between carburetors and fuel injection include:-
The carburetor modifications and complications needed to comply with increasingly-strict exhaust emission regulations of the 1970s and 1980s gradually eroded and then reversed the simplicity, cost, and packaging advantages carburetors had traditionally offered. Fuel injection appeared first on European-made cars in the late 1960s and early '70s. It was phased in through the latter '70s and '80s at an accelerating rate, with the US and Japanese markets leading and the UK and Commonwealth markets lagging somewhat, and since the early 1990s, almost all gasoline passenger cars sold in first world markets like the United States, Europe, Japan, and Australia have come equipped with electronic fuel injection (electronic Fuel Injection System. Fuel Injection Systems
The functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the central task of supplying fuel to the combustion process, but it is a design decision how a particular system will be optimized. There are several competing objectives such as:
Certain combinations of these goals are conflicting, and it is impractical for a single engine control system to fully optimize all criteria simultaneously. In practice, automotive engineers strive to best satisfy a customer's needs competitively. The modern digital Electronic Fuel Injection System is far more capable at optimizing these competing objectives than a carburetor.
An engine's air/fuel ratio must be accurately controlled under all operating conditions to achieve the desired engine performance, emissions, drivability, and fuel economy. Modern Electronic Fuel Injection Systems meter fuel very precisely, and when used together with an Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor (EGO sensor), they are also very accurate. The advent of digital closed loop fuel control, based on feedback from an EGO sensor, let Electronic Fuel Injection System significantly outperform a carburetor. The two fundamental improvements are:
Those two features result in these performance benefits:
There are other benefits associated with fuel injection, such as better atomization of the fuel in the intake (constant-choke carburetors have poor atomization at low air speeds, needing modifications such as sequential twin-barrel designs) and better breathing due to eliminating the carburetor's venturi.
Injection systems have evolved significantly since the mid 1980s. Current Electronic Fuel Injection systems provide an accurate and cost effective method of metering fuel. Emission and subjective performance have steadily improved as modern digital controls came, which is why Electronic Fuel Injection systems have replaced carburetors in the marketplace.
Electronic Fuel Injection System is becoming more reliable and less expensive through widespread usage. At the same time, carburetors are becoming less available, and more expensive. Even marine applications are adopting Electronic Fuel Injection System as reliability improves. If this trend continues, it is conceivable that virtually all internal combustion engines, including garden equipment and snow throwers, will eventually use EFI. Fuel Injection Systems
It should be noted that a carburetor's fuel metering system is a less expensive alternative when there are not strict emission regulations, as in developing countries. Electronic Fuel Injection System will undoubtedly replace carburetors in these nations too as they adopt emission regulations similar to Europe, Japan, and North America.
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, various federal, state and local governments conducted studies into the numerous sources of air pollution. These studies ultimately attributed a significant portion of air pollution to the automobile, and concluded air pollution is not bounded by local political boundaries. At that time, the primary source of emission regulations was legislated at the local level. The ineffective scope of local regulations was gradually superseded with more strategically comprehensive state and federal regulations. By 1967 the state of California (Governor Reagan), created the California Air Resources Board, and in 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was formed. Both agencies now create and enforce emission regulations for automobiles, as well as for many other sources.
Additionally, similar studies and regulations were simultaneously developed in Europe and Japan. Fuel Injection Systems
The primary source of internal combustion engine emissions is the incomplete combustion of a minuscule fraction of the total fuel consumed. This is due to having insufficient oxygen to burn all the fuel. The unburned portion of fuel is so small, the lost energy is trivial to fuel efficiency, and therefore commercially insignificant to the final customer. Auto manufacturers were eventually motivated by emission regulations to address this issue. Fuel Injection Systems
The modern Electronic Fuel Injection system evolved to gain deliberate control of the small fraction of unburned fuel. The ultimate combustion goal is to match each molecule(s) of fuel with a corresponding molecule(s) of oxygen so that neither has any molecules remaining after combustion - (see stoichiometry). This is a gross oversimplification of complex combustion chemistry that occurs in a difficult to manage environment. However, it accurately describes the magnitude of the fuel metering task, as well as the precision of a modern Electronic Fuel Injection system.
The process of determining the amount of fuel, and its delivery into the engine, are known as fuel metering. Early injection systems used mechanical methods to meter fuel (non electronic, or mechanical fuel injection). Modern systems are nearly all electronic, and use an electronic solenoid (the injector) to inject the fuel. An electronic engine control unit calculates the mass of fuel to inject.
The fuel injector acts as the fuel-dispensing nozzle. It injects liquid fuel directly into the engine's air stream. In almost all cases this requires an external pump. The pump and injector are only two of several components in a complete fuel injection system.
In contrast to an Electronic Fuel Injection system, a carburetor directs the induction air through a venturi, which generates a minute difference in air pressure. The minute air pressure differences both emulsify (premix fuel with air) the fuel, and then acts as the force to push the mixture from the carburetor nozzle into the induction air stream. As more air enters the engine, a greater pressure difference is generated, and more fuel is metered into the engine. A carburetor is a self-contained fuel metering system, and is cost competitive when compared to a complete Electronic Fuel Injection system.
An Electronic Fuel Injection system requires several peripheral components in addition to the injector(s), in order to duplicate all the functions of a carburetor. A point worth noting during times of fuel metering repair is that EFI systems are prone to diagnostic ambiguity. A single carburetor replacement can accomplish what might require numerous repair attempts to identify which one of the several EFI system components is malfunctioning. On the other hand, Electronic Fuel Injection Systems require little regular maintenance; a carburetor typically requires seasonal and/or altitude adjustments.
The calibration, and often the design, of a fuel injection system differs depending on the type of fuel: propane (LPG), gasoline, ethanol, methanol, methane (natural gas), hydrogen or diesel. The vast majority of fuel injection systems are for gasoline or diesel applications, and in the past, their components and designs were quite different. With the advent of "electronic" fuel injection, the diesel and gasoline hardware have grown quite similar. EFI's programmable software has permitted common hardware to be used across some of the fuels. Fuel Injection Systems
Diesel Fuel Injectors